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What is logic Gates in Computer With Example

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What is logic Gates in Computer
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A Logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. In this article, I explain What is logic Gates in Computer, and the type of logic gates with an Example.

What is logic Gates in Computer?

A Logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. However, In this logic normally use is Boolean logic, and that is most commonly found in digital circuits. So Logic gates are primarily implemented electronically using diodes or transistors. But can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays, fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements.

In electronic logic, a logic level is represented by a voltage or current, depending on the type of electronic logic is used.

Digital Logic Gates:

Digital Logic Gates, which are also known as combinational logic gates or simply ‘logic gates’, are digital IC’s, whose output at any time is determined by the states of its input at that time. Since logic gates are digital IC’s their input and output signals can only be in one of two possible digital states, logic’0′ or logic’1′. Thus the logic state in which the output of a logic gate will be put in depends on the logic states of each of its individual inputs.

The primary application of logic gates is to implement ‘logic’ in the flow of digital signals in a digital circuit. Logic in its ordinary sense is defined as a branch of philosophy that deals with what is true and false. Based on what other things are true and false. This essentially is the function of logic gates in digital circuits-to determine which output will be true or false, given a set that can either be true (logic ‘1’) or false(logic ‘0’).

Interestingly, the operation of logic gates in relation to one another may be represented and analyzed. This is using a branch of mathematics called Boolean Algebra. So which is like common algebra deals with the manipulation of expressions to solve or simplify equations. Expressions used in Boolean Algebra.

Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. These gates are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR, and EXNOR gates.

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Type of logic Gates in computer with the aid of Truth Tables :

  • AND Gate

The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output(1) only if all its inputs are high. A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e A.B. Bear in mind that this dot is sometimes omitted i.e. AB.

AND gate

  • OR Gate

The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high (1) if one or more of its input is high. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation.

OR gate

  • NOT Gate

The NOT Gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input at its output. It is also known as an inverter. If the input Variable is A, the inverted output is known as NOTA.  This is also shown as A, or A with a bar over the top, as shown at the outputs. The diagrams below show two ways that the NAND logic gate can be configured to produce a NOT gate. It can also be done using NOR logic gates in the same way.

not gate

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  • NAND Gate

This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT Gate. The output of all NAND gates is high if any of the inputs are low. The Symbol is an AND gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.

nand gate

  • NOR Gate

This is a NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. The outputs of all NOR gates are low if any of the inputs are high. The Symbol is an OR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.

nor

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  • EXOR Gate

The ‘Exclusive-OR’ gate is a circuit that will give a high output if either, but not both, of its two inputs, are high. An encircled plus sign (⊕) is used to show the EOR operation.

What is logic Gates in Computer

  • EXNOR Gate

The ‘Exclusive-NOR’ gate circuit does the opposite to the EOR gate. It will give a low output if either, but not both, of its two inputs, are high. The symbol is an EXOR gate with a small circle on the output. The small circle represents inversion.

What is logic Gates in Computer with Example

However, The NAND and NOR gates are called the Universal function since with one the AND and OR functions and NOT can be Generated.

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Explain How to Write Curve,bend and wrap text in ms word

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How Write Curve text in ms word
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Microsoft Word is one the most useful Software for office work, Student presentation, and many more. We use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word many times as an office, collage, School presentation Heading. In this article, You will know how to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word Step by step.

Why do we use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word?

Curved text is used when you design a flyer, newsletter, and logo in your Word document to enhance the look of the presentation. Microsoft Word has a very easy way to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text.

How to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in MS Word Step by step:

Step 1: Open the new or an existing Word document.

Step 2: Highlight or select the text that you want to curve, bend, or warp.

Step 3: Go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click on the WordArt icon in the Text section.

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M S Word Step 1

Step 4: A list of WordArt will appear. Select the letter style from the WordArt list to apply to the text.

WordArt List

Step 5: Once WordArt is added to your text, a new menu Drawing tool is created automatically. Now, go to the Format tab on the Ribbon and click on the drop-down icon then click Text Efforts in the WordArt Styles section.

Text Effect in ms word

Step 6: Click on the Transform option from the Text Effects drop-down menu. Select the curve that you want to apply in the selected text.

How to Write Curve Text in ms word

Result: Now your Selected word is Transformed in your chosen style(Curve, bend, and wrap).

Carve text in Ms Word

 

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Explain Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

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Explain Lookup function in Excel
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Lookup is one of the most used full functions in Microsoft Excel. It’s used to categorize under Excel Lookup and reference functions. In this article, I explain What is the Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The LOOKUP Function is categorized under Excel Lookup and reference functions. This section discusses various techniques that you can use to look UP a value in a range of data Excel has three functions(LookUP, V LookUP, H LookUP) designed for this task.

A Look-UP formula essentially returns a value from a table by looking up another related value. A common telephone directory provides a good analogy. If you want to find a person’s telephone number, You first locate the name and then retrieve the corresponding number.

Example of LookUp Function in Excel :

In Worksheet that uses Several look UP formulas. This Worksheet Contains a table of employee data, beginning in row 7. This range name is EmpData. When you enter the last name into cell C2, lookup formulas in D2:G2 retrieve the matching information from the table. If the last name does not appear in column C, the formulas return.

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The following lookup formulas use the Vlookup function:

  • D2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,2,FALSE)
  • E2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,3,FALSE)
  • F2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,4,FALSE)
  • G2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,5,FALSE)

 

Explain V-Lookup Function in Excel


The VLookup function looks up the value in the first column of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table column. So, the lookup table arranges vertically.

The syntax  for the VLookUp Function is: VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup)

The VLookup Function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first column of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • col_index_num: The column number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

Explain H-Lookup Function in Excel


The HLookup function works just like the VLookup function except that the lookup table is arranged horizontally instead of vertically. The HLookup function looks up the value in the first row of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table row.

The syntax  for the HLookUp Function is: HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup)

The HLookup function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first row of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • row_index_num: The row number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics?Example

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example
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Graphics help us to see the photo, video, Animation Popularly, and Vector Graphics are sharp and detailed than Raster Graphics. In this article, I Explain the Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Examples.

What is the difference between Vector and Raster graphics?

Graphics are part of Multimedia. In Digital media like Photo, Video, Animation all these things are made by graphics. Graphics are two types Vector Graphics and Raster Graphics.

Vector Graphics

Raster Graphics

Vector Graphics are composed of paths. Raster graphics are composed of pixels.
Vector Graphics such as a.eps file or Adobe Illustrator file are composed of paths or lines, that are either straight or curved. Raster graphics Such as a .gif .jpeg is arranging of pixels of various colors, which together form an image.
The data file for a Vector image contains the points where the paths and ends how much the path curve, and the colors that either border or fill the paths. Raster graphics, on the other hand, become “blocky” since each pixel increases in size as the image is larger.
Vector Graphics is Capable of detailed editing. Raster graphics are Less detailed but offer precise paths.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example

Example of Vector Graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Illustrator.
  2. CorelDraw.

Vector Graphics typically saved as EPS, AI, SVG, PDF Format.

Example of Raster graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Photoshop.
  2. Gimp.

Raster Graphics saved as JPG, GIF, PNG, TIF, BMP Format.


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