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What is Topology in Computer Network

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Topology is part of the Computer Network. In this article, I explain What is a topology in a computer network and the different types of Network Topology Bus, Ring topology

What is Network Topology

There are two main types of topologies Physical and Logical topologies. The physical topology of a network has to do with the configuration of computers, cables, and other computer peripherals. Logical Topology is the system used to pass information between computers.

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Physical Topologies


  • STAR Topology

In the star structure, the central node is often the master or HUB. When communication is primarily between the central node and router nodes, this network can be fairly effective. However when communication is between two or more nodes this structure often has problems, particularly if there is a lot of traffic. Since all communication must go through to the central node even goes shut down, then the complete network will be down.

  • Advantages of a Star Topology
  1. Easy to install and wire.
  2. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
  3. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
  • Disadvantages of a Star Topology
  1. Requires more cable length than a linear topology.
  2. More expensive than linear bus topologies because of the cost of the hubs, etc.

what is topology in computer network

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  • BUS Topology (Linear Bus)

In BUS network devices are connected to a common cable or bus. If one device wants to access another device on the network, it puts a message addressed to that device on the bus. If one of the devices attached to the bus fails, the rest of the network is not attached. The network fails only when the bus fails. Bus failures are rare because the bus is simply a wire with no active components.

  • Advantages of a Bus Topology
  1. Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
  2. Requires less cable length than a star topology.
  • Disadvantages of a Bus Topology
  1. The entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  2. Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.

What is Topology in Computer Network

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  • RING Topology

In a ring network, illustrated each device is serially connected in a closed ring pattern. lf one device wants to send a message to another device on the network, the message has to pass through all the devices that lie between the two. The ring topology uses multiple finks to form a circle of computers. Each link carries information in one direction. Information moves around the ring in sequence from its source to its destination.

  • Advantages of RING Topology
  1. An orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit
  2. Under a heavy network, load performs better than a start topology.
  3. To manage the connectivity between the computers it doesn’t need a network server.
  • Disadvantages of a RING Topology
  1. One malfunctioning workstation can throw away the entire network.
  2. Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the entire network.
  3. It is slower than an Ethernet network.

ring tropology


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Explain How to Write Curve,bend and wrap text in ms word

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How Write Curve text in ms word
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Microsoft Word is one the most useful Software for office work, Student presentation, and many more. We use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word many times as an office, collage, School presentation Heading. In this article, You will know how to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word Step by step.

Why do we use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word?

Curved text is used when you design a flyer, newsletter, and logo in your Word document to enhance the look of the presentation. Microsoft Word has a very easy way to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text.

How to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in MS Word Step by step:

Step 1: Open the new or an existing Word document.

Step 2: Highlight or select the text that you want to curve, bend, or warp.

Step 3: Go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click on the WordArt icon in the Text section.

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M S Word Step 1

Step 4: A list of WordArt will appear. Select the letter style from the WordArt list to apply to the text.

WordArt List

Step 5: Once WordArt is added to your text, a new menu Drawing tool is created automatically. Now, go to the Format tab on the Ribbon and click on the drop-down icon then click Text Efforts in the WordArt Styles section.

Text Effect in ms word

Step 6: Click on the Transform option from the Text Effects drop-down menu. Select the curve that you want to apply in the selected text.

How to Write Curve Text in ms word

Result: Now your Selected word is Transformed in your chosen style(Curve, bend, and wrap).

Carve text in Ms Word

 

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Explain Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

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Explain Lookup function in Excel
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Lookup is one of the most used full functions in Microsoft Excel. It’s used to categorize under Excel Lookup and reference functions. In this article, I explain What is the Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The LOOKUP Function is categorized under Excel Lookup and reference functions. This section discusses various techniques that you can use to look UP a value in a range of data Excel has three functions(LookUP, V LookUP, H LookUP) designed for this task.

A Look-UP formula essentially returns a value from a table by looking up another related value. A common telephone directory provides a good analogy. If you want to find a person’s telephone number, You first locate the name and then retrieve the corresponding number.

Example of LookUp Function in Excel :

In Worksheet that uses Several look UP formulas. This Worksheet Contains a table of employee data, beginning in row 7. This range name is EmpData. When you enter the last name into cell C2, lookup formulas in D2:G2 retrieve the matching information from the table. If the last name does not appear in column C, the formulas return.

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The following lookup formulas use the Vlookup function:

  • D2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,2,FALSE)
  • E2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,3,FALSE)
  • F2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,4,FALSE)
  • G2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,5,FALSE)

 

Explain V-Lookup Function in Excel


The VLookup function looks up the value in the first column of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table column. So, the lookup table arranges vertically.

The syntax  for the VLookUp Function is: VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup)

The VLookup Function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first column of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • col_index_num: The column number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

Explain H-Lookup Function in Excel


The HLookup function works just like the VLookup function except that the lookup table is arranged horizontally instead of vertically. The HLookup function looks up the value in the first row of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table row.

The syntax  for the HLookUp Function is: HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup)

The HLookup function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first row of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • row_index_num: The row number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics?Example

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example
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Graphics help us to see the photo, video, Animation Popularly, and Vector Graphics are sharp and detailed than Raster Graphics. In this article, I Explain the Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Examples.

What is the difference between Vector and Raster graphics?

Graphics are part of Multimedia. In Digital media like Photo, Video, Animation all these things are made by graphics. Graphics are two types Vector Graphics and Raster Graphics.

Vector Graphics

Raster Graphics

Vector Graphics are composed of paths. Raster graphics are composed of pixels.
Vector Graphics such as a.eps file or Adobe Illustrator file are composed of paths or lines, that are either straight or curved. Raster graphics Such as a .gif .jpeg is arranging of pixels of various colors, which together form an image.
The data file for a Vector image contains the points where the paths and ends how much the path curve, and the colors that either border or fill the paths. Raster graphics, on the other hand, become “blocky” since each pixel increases in size as the image is larger.
Vector Graphics is Capable of detailed editing. Raster graphics are Less detailed but offer precise paths.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example

Example of Vector Graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Illustrator.
  2. CorelDraw.

Vector Graphics typically saved as EPS, AI, SVG, PDF Format.

Example of Raster graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Photoshop.
  2. Gimp.

Raster Graphics saved as JPG, GIF, PNG, TIF, BMP Format.


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