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Explain What is Unix Operating System

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UNIX is a computer Operating System and In this article, we going to explain what is UNIX operating system is and the Versions of the UNIX System.

What is UNIX?


UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas Mcllroy. Today’s Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T, as well as various commercial vendors and non-profit organizations.

The present owner of the trademark UNIX is the Open Group, an industry standards consortium. The only system fully compliant with and certified to the Single UNIX Specification qualifies as “UNIX “.

Read Also: Different types of Computer memory 

Versions of UNIX System(History)


  • The version (1969 -1980)

The Beginning(1969): The history of UNIX starts back in 1969, when Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others started working “little-used PDP-7 in a corner” at Bell Labs and what was to become UNIX.

First Edition(1971): It had an assembler for a PDP-1 1/20, file system. It was used for the text processing of patent documents.

Fourth Edition(1973): It was rewritten in C Language. This made it portable and changed the history of the OS.

Sixth Edition(1975): UNIX leaves home. Also widely known as Version 6, this is the first to be widely available outside of Bell Labs. The first BSD version (1. x) was derived from V6.

Seventh Edition(1979): It was an “improvement over all preceding and following Unices” [Bourne]. It had C, UUCP, and the Bourne shell.

Xenix(1980): Microsoft introduces Xenix. 32V and 4BSD introduced.

  • The version (1982 -1989)

System 3(1982): AT&T’s UNIX System Group (USG) release System Ili, the first public release outside Bell Laboratories. SunOS 1.0 ships. HP-UX introduced. Ultrix-11 Introduced.

System 5(1983): Computer Research Group (CRG), UNIX System Group (USG), and a third group merge to become UNIX System Development Lab. AT&T announces UNIX System V, the first supported release. Installed base 45,000.

4.2BSD(1984): University of California at Berkeley releases 4.2BSD, which includes TCP/IP, new signals, and much more. X/Open formed.

SVR2(1984): System V Release 2 introduced. At this time there are 100,000 UNIX installations around the world.

4.3BSD(1986):4.3BSD released, including Internet name server. SVID introduced. NFS shipped. AIX announced. Installed base 250,000.

SVR3(1987): System V Release 3 including STREAMS, TLI, RFS. At this time there are 750,000 UNIX installations around the world. IR IX introduced.

SVR4(1989): UNIX System V Release 4 ships, unifying System BSD, and Xenix. Installed base 1.2 million.

  • The version (1990 -1995)

XPG3(1990): X/Open launches XPG3 Brand. OSF/1 debuts. plan g from Bell Labs ships.

SVR4.2(1992): USL releases UNIX System V Release 4.2 (Destiny), October – X PG4 Brand launched by X/Open. December, 22nd Novell announces intent to acquire USL. Solaris 2.0 ships.

4.4BSD(1993): 4.4BSD the final release from Berkeley. June 16 Novell acquires USL.

SVR4.2MP(1993): Novell transfers rights to the “UNIX” trademark and the Single UNIX Specification to X/Open. COSE initiative delivers “Spec 1170” to X/Open for FastTrack. In Decem-ber Novell ships SVR4.2MP, the final USL OEM release I of System V.

UNIX 95(1995): X/Open introduces the UNIX 95 branding program forl’4 implementations of the Single UNIX Specification. Novell sells the UnixWare business lines to SCO which was Digital UNIX.

Single UNIX Specification, Version 2 (1997): The Open Group introduces Version 2 of the Single UNIX Specification, including support for real-time, threads and 64-bit and larger processors. I RIX 6.4, AIX 4.3 and HP-U) 11 ship.

  • The version (1998 -2003)

UNIX 98(1998): The Open Group introduces the UNIX 98 family of brands, including Base, Workstation, and Server. First UNIX 98 registered products shipped by Sun, IBM, and NCR. The Open Source movement starts to take off with announcements from Netscape and IBM. UnixWare 7 and IRIX 6.5 ship.

UNIX at 30(1999): The UNIX system reaches its 30th anniversary and Linux released kernel 2.2. The Open Group and the IEEE commence joint development of a revision to POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification. First LinuxWorld conferences. Dot corn fever on the stock markets. Tru64 UNIX ships.

Single UNIX Specification, Version 3(2001): Version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification unites IEEE POSIX, The Open Group, and the industry efforts. Linux 2.4 kernel released. IT stocks face a hard time in the markets. The value of procurements for the UNIX brand exceeds $25billion. AIX 5L Ships.

ISO/IEC 9945(2003): The core volumes of version 3 of the Single UNIX Specification are approved as an international standard. The “Westwood” test suite ship for the UNIX 03 Brand.Solaris 9.0 E Ships After that Linux 2.6 Kernel Released.


 

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Explain How to Write Curve,bend and wrap text in ms word

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How Write Curve text in ms word
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Microsoft Word is one the most useful Software for office work, Student presentation, and many more. We use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word many times as an office, collage, School presentation Heading. In this article, You will know how to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word Step by step.

Why do we use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word?

Curved text is used when you design a flyer, newsletter, and logo in your Word document to enhance the look of the presentation. Microsoft Word has a very easy way to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text.

How to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in MS Word Step by step:

Step 1: Open the new or an existing Word document.

Step 2: Highlight or select the text that you want to curve, bend, or warp.

Step 3: Go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click on the WordArt icon in the Text section.

Read Also: What is Mail Merge in MS word, How to use it

M S Word Step 1

Step 4: A list of WordArt will appear. Select the letter style from the WordArt list to apply to the text.

WordArt List

Step 5: Once WordArt is added to your text, a new menu Drawing tool is created automatically. Now, go to the Format tab on the Ribbon and click on the drop-down icon then click Text Efforts in the WordArt Styles section.

Text Effect in ms word

Step 6: Click on the Transform option from the Text Effects drop-down menu. Select the curve that you want to apply in the selected text.

How to Write Curve Text in ms word

Result: Now your Selected word is Transformed in your chosen style(Curve, bend, and wrap).

Carve text in Ms Word

 

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Explain Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

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Explain Lookup function in Excel
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Lookup is one of the most used full functions in Microsoft Excel. It’s used to categorize under Excel Lookup and reference functions. In this article, I explain What is the Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The LOOKUP Function is categorized under Excel Lookup and reference functions. This section discusses various techniques that you can use to look UP a value in a range of data Excel has three functions(LookUP, V LookUP, H LookUP) designed for this task.

A Look-UP formula essentially returns a value from a table by looking up another related value. A common telephone directory provides a good analogy. If you want to find a person’s telephone number, You first locate the name and then retrieve the corresponding number.

Example of LookUp Function in Excel :

In Worksheet that uses Several look UP formulas. This Worksheet Contains a table of employee data, beginning in row 7. This range name is EmpData. When you enter the last name into cell C2, lookup formulas in D2:G2 retrieve the matching information from the table. If the last name does not appear in column C, the formulas return.

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The following lookup formulas use the Vlookup function:

  • D2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,2,FALSE)
  • E2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,3,FALSE)
  • F2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,4,FALSE)
  • G2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,5,FALSE)

 

Explain V-Lookup Function in Excel


The VLookup function looks up the value in the first column of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table column. So, the lookup table arranges vertically.

The syntax  for the VLookUp Function is: VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup)

The VLookup Function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first column of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • col_index_num: The column number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

Explain H-Lookup Function in Excel


The HLookup function works just like the VLookup function except that the lookup table is arranged horizontally instead of vertically. The HLookup function looks up the value in the first row of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table row.

The syntax  for the HLookUp Function is: HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup)

The HLookup function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first row of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • row_index_num: The row number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics?Example

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example
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Graphics help us to see the photo, video, Animation Popularly, and Vector Graphics are sharp and detailed than Raster Graphics. In this article, I Explain the Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Examples.

What is the difference between Vector and Raster graphics?

Graphics are part of Multimedia. In Digital media like Photo, Video, Animation all these things are made by graphics. Graphics are two types Vector Graphics and Raster Graphics.

Vector Graphics

Raster Graphics

Vector Graphics are composed of paths. Raster graphics are composed of pixels.
Vector Graphics such as a.eps file or Adobe Illustrator file are composed of paths or lines, that are either straight or curved. Raster graphics Such as a .gif .jpeg is arranging of pixels of various colors, which together form an image.
The data file for a Vector image contains the points where the paths and ends how much the path curve, and the colors that either border or fill the paths. Raster graphics, on the other hand, become “blocky” since each pixel increases in size as the image is larger.
Vector Graphics is Capable of detailed editing. Raster graphics are Less detailed but offer precise paths.

Read Also: What is Multimedia in Computer With Example

Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example

Example of Vector Graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Illustrator.
  2. CorelDraw.

Vector Graphics typically saved as EPS, AI, SVG, PDF Format.

Example of Raster graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Photoshop.
  2. Gimp.

Raster Graphics saved as JPG, GIF, PNG, TIF, BMP Format.


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