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Explain the generation of computers with details

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Generation in computers refers to periodical technology advancement. In this article, You know about generations of computers with details we will know about this technology and the facilities of different generations of computers.

Features of Different Generations of Computers


Fast Generation (1940-1956)

This generation is Vacuum tube-based. (UNIVAC & ENIAC)

  • Advantage

  1. Vacuum tubes were the only electronic computers available during those days.
  2. Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computers.
  • Disadvantage

  1. Too bulky in size and poor reliability.
  2. Manual assembly of individual components into function unit required.

Explain the generation of computers with details

Read Also: Classification of computers by type, size.

Second Generation (1956-1964)

Second Generation computers are Transistor based. (IBM1620,CDC1604)

  • Advantage

  1. Smaller in size as compared to a first-generation computer and more reliable.
  2. These computers were able to reduce the required computational times from milliseconds to microseconds.
  • Disadvantage

  1. Air condition required.
  2. Frequent maintenance was required and commercial production was difficult and costly.

generation of computers with details

Third Generation(1965-1971)

Third Generation computers are Integrated circuit-based. (IBM360 Series, PDP)

  • Advantage

  1. smaller than a second-generation computer and also more reliable.
  2. low heat generated IC chips then second-generation computer and maintenance cost is low because hardware failures are rare.
  • Disadvantage

  1. Air conditioning required in many cases.
  2. High sophisticated technology required for manufacturing IC.

generation of computers with details

Fourth Generation(1971-Present)

Fourth Generation computers are VLSI&LSI Microprocessor-based. (Laptop, Personal Computer, Super Computer)

  • Advantage

  1. Smaller in size because of high component density.
  2. In this generation, computers perform better than previous generations.
  • Disadvantage

  1. Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of LSI Chips.

Fourth

Fifth Generation(Present – Future)

It’s base on two principles. (AI & Robots)

  1. Knowledge of Information processing.
  2. Large Scale parallel processing.

Robot

Previous Generations had formed an incrementing number of logic elements in a single CPU, Whereas in this generation the main focus was to increase the system performance by margin numbers of CPUs.

 

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Explain How to Write Curve,bend and wrap text in ms word

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How Write Curve text in ms word
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Microsoft Word is one the most useful Software for office work, Student presentation, and many more. We use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word many times as an office, collage, School presentation Heading. In this article, You will know how to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word Step by step.

Why do we use Curve, bend, and wrap text in ms word?

Curved text is used when you design a flyer, newsletter, and logo in your Word document to enhance the look of the presentation. Microsoft Word has a very easy way to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text.

How to Write Curve, bend, and wrap text in MS Word Step by step:

Step 1: Open the new or an existing Word document.

Step 2: Highlight or select the text that you want to curve, bend, or warp.

Step 3: Go to the Insert tab on the Ribbon and click on the WordArt icon in the Text section.

Read Also: What is Mail Merge in MS word, How to use it

M S Word Step 1

Step 4: A list of WordArt will appear. Select the letter style from the WordArt list to apply to the text.

WordArt List

Step 5: Once WordArt is added to your text, a new menu Drawing tool is created automatically. Now, go to the Format tab on the Ribbon and click on the drop-down icon then click Text Efforts in the WordArt Styles section.

Text Effect in ms word

Step 6: Click on the Transform option from the Text Effects drop-down menu. Select the curve that you want to apply in the selected text.

How to Write Curve Text in ms word

Result: Now your Selected word is Transformed in your chosen style(Curve, bend, and wrap).

Carve text in Ms Word

 

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Explain Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

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Explain Lookup function in Excel
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Lookup is one of the most used full functions in Microsoft Excel. It’s used to categorize under Excel Lookup and reference functions. In this article, I explain What is the Lookup function in Excel | Explain V and H lookup Function

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The LOOKUP Function is categorized under Excel Lookup and reference functions. This section discusses various techniques that you can use to look UP a value in a range of data Excel has three functions(LookUP, V LookUP, H LookUP) designed for this task.

A Look-UP formula essentially returns a value from a table by looking up another related value. A common telephone directory provides a good analogy. If you want to find a person’s telephone number, You first locate the name and then retrieve the corresponding number.

Example of LookUp Function in Excel :

In Worksheet that uses Several look UP formulas. This Worksheet Contains a table of employee data, beginning in row 7. This range name is EmpData. When you enter the last name into cell C2, lookup formulas in D2:G2 retrieve the matching information from the table. If the last name does not appear in column C, the formulas return.

Explain Lookup function in Excel

The following lookup formulas use the Vlookup function:

  • D2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,2,FALSE)
  • E2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,3,FALSE)
  • F2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,4,FALSE)
  • G2 = VLOOKUP (C2, EmpData,5,FALSE)

 

Explain V-Lookup Function in Excel


The VLookup function looks up the value in the first column of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table column. So, the lookup table arranges vertically.

The syntax  for the VLookUp Function is: VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup)

The VLookup Function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first column of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • col_index_num: The column number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

Explain H-Lookup Function in Excel


The HLookup function works just like the VLookup function except that the lookup table is arranged horizontally instead of vertically. The HLookup function looks up the value in the first row of the lookup table and returns the corresponding value in a specified table row.

The syntax  for the HLookUp Function is: HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup)

The HLookup function’s arguments are as follows:

  • lookup_value: The value is to be in the first row of the lookup table.
  • table_array: The range that contains the lookup table.
  • row_index_num: The row number within the table from which the matching value is in return.
  • range_lookup: Optional. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. However, If FALSE, Vlookup will search for an exact match and, if Vlookup can’t find an exact match, the function returns #/NA.

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics?Example

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Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example
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Graphics help us to see the photo, video, Animation Popularly, and Vector Graphics are sharp and detailed than Raster Graphics. In this article, I Explain the Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Examples.

What is the difference between Vector and Raster graphics?

Graphics are part of Multimedia. In Digital media like Photo, Video, Animation all these things are made by graphics. Graphics are two types Vector Graphics and Raster Graphics.

Vector Graphics

Raster Graphics

Vector Graphics are composed of paths. Raster graphics are composed of pixels.
Vector Graphics such as a.eps file or Adobe Illustrator file are composed of paths or lines, that are either straight or curved. Raster graphics Such as a .gif .jpeg is arranging of pixels of various colors, which together form an image.
The data file for a Vector image contains the points where the paths and ends how much the path curve, and the colors that either border or fill the paths. Raster graphics, on the other hand, become “blocky” since each pixel increases in size as the image is larger.
Vector Graphics is Capable of detailed editing. Raster graphics are Less detailed but offer precise paths.

Read Also: What is Multimedia in Computer With Example

Difference between Vector and Raster graphics with Example

Example of Vector Graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Illustrator.
  2. CorelDraw.

Vector Graphics typically saved as EPS, AI, SVG, PDF Format.

Example of Raster graphics Software with Format:

  1. Adobe Photoshop.
  2. Gimp.

Raster Graphics saved as JPG, GIF, PNG, TIF, BMP Format.


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